Yes! There were some good points to retrieve from your text though.
- Since mass equals energy, all energy is some kind of mass. The photon has no rest mass, but it does have mass since E=mc^2.
- Gravity is fundamentally tied to mass. Another way to put that is, gravity is fundamentally tied to energy. So energy from anywhere creates gravity. The Higgs field contributes some of this energy.
- Before the Higgs field took its current non-zero value, a lot more particles were massless like the photon. It took way less energy to move them around. When the Higgs field took its value, most of these got a rest mass, which meant that energy was stored in them even when they weren't moving around or doing anything else wonky.*
- Higgs was the last missing piece of the standard model, which explains all of the particles and their forces except gravity. Also except dark matter and dark energy. So it explains how the electromagnetic, the weak and the strong forces can sort of combine, but gravity is still out there even then.
- So as you move back in time towards the hypothetical Big Bang, you should see everything turning into a quark-gluon plasma; then the electroweak force should become mended and several particles become massless; you might also see the strong force join in and more fun stuff happen; and then, maybe something really odd starts to happen with gravity, that is, with the fundamental structure of spacetime. This is where we need quantum gravity – if such a theory is possible.
I am currently reading an interesting book about quantum gravity. Haven't read enough to know if I recommend it yet, but it should have some interesting details:
An intriguing idea for what drove the expansion of the early universe:
* All massless particles must move at the speed of light, so they always have energy there. No matter your reference frame, they will move at the speed of light, just like photons do. I'm actually not sure why they have to do this...